Objective: The objective of this exercise is to learn about the processes that create upwelling currents in the ocean and that create the El Niño climatic condition. Both upwelling currents and El Niño have profound economic implications for people around the globe. Because upwelling currents provide nutrients to surface water, they increase biological productivity and economic commodities such as fisheries. The El Niño condition, because it affects the strength of upwelling currents, influences biological productivity in the ocean. It also affects winds and sea-surface temperatures, which influence rainfall distribution, with implications for economic activities such as agriculture. Both upwelling currents and El Niño illustrate the intimate relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere. By completing this exercise, you should be able to recognize the factors that are associated with these conditions in the ocean.